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Author Index

Japanese Version

A

ABE, Akiko “A Note on the Intensifier Reading in the English Resultative Construction” Vantage Points of English Linguistics, Literature and Education (2015) 192-203.

B

BEPPU, Yuka “An Essay on M. G. Lewis’ The Monk―The Evil Love―” No. 6 (1995) 65-79.

BEPPU, Yuka “An Approach to Study of Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus―A Search for Knowledge and Human Being―” No. 7 (1996) 37-57.

BEPPU, Yuka “A Study of Hemingway’s Originality and Theme in Indian Camp” English and American Linguistics and Literature (2000) 341-355.

BEPPU, Yuka “A Study of the Cat and the American Wife in “Cat in the Rain”” No. 12 (2002) 93-108.

BEPPU, Yuka “A Reconsideration of Chapter 10 of In Our Time” No. 17 (2007) 127-150.

C

D

DOI, Schun “The Naturalising Process of Japanese Loanwords in the Oxford English Dictionary” No. 18 (2008) 53-78.

DOI, Schun “Japanese Loanwords in the Oxford English Dictionary and in the English version of Kæmpfer’s the History of Japan” The Future of English Studies (2010) 84-99.

DOI, Schun “An Account of Adjectival Past Participles” Vantage Points of English Linguistics, Literature and Education (2015) 240-250.

E

F

FUJITA, Takao “Discourse Connective whichEnglish and American Linguistics and Literature (2000) 282-290.

FUJITA, Takao “She whatted her whats?” No. 18 (2008) 1-18.

FUJITA, Takao “The Need for an English-Japanese Dictionary Categorized According to Parts of Speech” No. 16 (2006) 1-54.

FUJITA, Takao “A Good Grounding in Grammar Is Essential for Learners of English” Vantage Points of English Linguistics, Literature and Education (2015) 265-276.

G

H

HAYASHI, Nanoka “The “Crusade” as a Metaphor for the Anti-Civilization Movement in Thoreau’s “Walking”” Vantage Points of English Linguistics, Literature and Education (2015) 75-84.

HIKICHI, Toshihiko “Message from Bird’s Cage―A Key to “The Mayor of Casterbridge”―” No. 3 (1992) 15-30.

HONDA, Shoko【Research Note】“On the Historical Development of There-Passive Constructions” Vantage Points of English Linguistics, Literature and Education (2015) 277-289.

HONJO, Tadahiro “Pullman Porters and Their Struggle for Equality in ”The Porter”” Vantage Points of English Linguistics, Literature and Education (2015) 85-96.

HONMA, Satomi “Oscar Wilde as a Victim of the Prisons” No. 24 (2014) 115-142.

HONMA, Satomi “Wilde and Consumption” Vantage Points of English Linguistics, Literature and Education (2015) 97-107

HOSKINS, Christopher A. “Ranges of Meaning: A Comparison of Japanese Post-positions and English Prepositions through Error Analysis―TEFL Foundation for Advanced Studies on International Development Tokyo, Japan” No. 12 (2002) 1-15.

I

IBARAKI, Seishirou and Yusuke KUME “A Role of Generative Grammar in a Guide to Junior High School Students’ Grammar Learning: Practice in English Course for Eighth Grade Students in Japan” Vantage Points of English Linguistics, Literature and Education (2015) 110-122.

ICHISHIMA, Kiyotaka “Japanese Communication―Undeveloped Verbal Skills” No. 18 (2008) 79-94.

ISHII, Kikujiro “Read-and-Look-Up Method for Japanese Learners of English―how to apply a read and look up method to the teaching of English in Japan―” No. 5 (1994) 49-59.

ISHII, Kikujiro “The Relationship between English Sounds and Spellings Based on Alphabet’s Sounds―One Suggestion to the Beginners of English Learners concerning How to Analyze the Relations between the Sounds and Spellings of English Words Using the Sounds of the Alphabet and International Phonetic Alphabet―” No. 11 (2001) 15-57.

ISHII, Kikujiro “A View to the Relationship between the Methods of Teaching English and the Recent Findings concerning Functions of Brain―Read-and-Look Up Shadowing Technique Based on Two Inner Criteria: Grammar-Analysis Ability Formed through the Grammar-Translation Method; and English-Sound-Analysis Ability Formed through Using Special English Phonetic Tables, is Reviewed in Connection with 1he Recent Findings concerning Functions of Brain―” No. 12 (2002) 31-60.

ISHII, Kikujiro “One Proposal of a Teaching Method of Shadowing and Read-and-Look up from the Viewpoint of Brain Science” No. 14 (2004) 21-34.

ISHII, Kikujiro “Secret to Motivating Japanese English Learners―The Secret to Motivating Japanese English Learners to Learn English is the Acquisition of English Sounds through IPA” No. 17 (2007) 101-110.

ITO, Tatsuya “Adverbial Quantifiers” No. 16 (2006) 93-108.

ITO, Tatsuya “Bare Nouns in Japanese and Korean” No. 18 (2008) 115-132.

ITO, Yuko “Non-Nominative Subjects and Root Infinitives in the Bilingual First Language Acquisition of English and Japanese” No. 9 (1998) 97-120.

ITO, Yuko “Subjective Case Marking in young children’s English” English and American Linguistics and Literature (2000) 290-306.

IWAMOTO, Hidekazu “Whether Adult L2 Learners Have Access to the UG Principle: The Difference between Japanese Quantifiers and English Quantifiers” No. 16 (2006) 137-146.

IWAMOTO, Hidekazu “Japanese Conversational Styles: Direct Speech and Indirect Speech” No. 17 (2007) 47-64.

IWAMOTO, Noriko “Patriarchy in The Awakening” No. 7 (1996) 59-73.

IWAMOTO, Noriko “George Eliot’s Concept of Marriage in Middlemarch” No. 8 (1997) 103-117.

IWAMOTO, Noriko “Mrs. Dalloway and the Frame of Femininity” No. 9 (1998) 55-66.

IWAMOTO, Noriko “Japanese University Students’ Receptive and Productive Skills of English Essays” No. 16 (2006) 127-137.
 
IWAMOTO, Noriko “Is Self-Assessment Possible?: Japanese Students’ Self-Assessment in their Course Work” No. 17 (2007) 65-80.

IWAMOTO, Noriko “Japanese University Students’ Attitudes toward English Speaking Situations” No. 19 (2009) 1-18.

IWAMOTO, Noriko “The Use of Debate in English Writing Class” The Future of English Studies (2010) 8-19.

IWAMOTO, Noriko “Motivation to Learn English: A Comparison of Engineering Major Students with Two Different Levels of English Proficiency” No. 21 (2011) 43-59.

IWAMOTO, Noriko “Writing on Board or Paper?: Students’ Attitudes toward Electronic Bulletin Board Activity” Vantage Points of English Linguistics, Literature and Education (2015) 123-132.

IWAMOTO, Noriko “An Investigation of Japanese University Students’ English-Speaking Skills” No. 26 (2016) 1-16.

J

K

KAGA, Takehiko “The Past as the Great Unrest: Walt Whitman and T. S. Eliot” No. 26 (2016) 33-50.

KANNO, Satoru “On Feature Sharing and Subject Position” Vantage Points of English Linguistics, Literature and Education (2015) 204-216.

KANNO, Satoru “Extraction out of Gerundive Subject” No. 26 (2016) 51-76.

KANNO, Satoru and Tadao NOMURA “Syntactic Finiteness of Subjunctive Clauses” No. 22 (2012) 67-91.

KATSUYAMA, Hiroyuki “On the Syntactic Structure of Double Object Constructions in Japanese and English” No. 16 (2006) 55-70.

KIUCHI, Osamu “Logical-Semantic Analysis of Rather” No. 13 (2003) 19-30.

KIUCHI, Osamu “Functional Solution to Predicate Constraint: Double Object Construction” No. 14 (2004) 1-19.

KIUCHI, Osamu “A Case Study of On: Contribution to the Teaching of English in Cognitive Semantics” No. 15 (2005) 1-14.

KIUCHI, Osamu “Simple Present Tense: A Cognitive Semantic Approach” No. 17 (2007) 1-16.

KIUCHI, Osamu “Discourse Marker you know:Cognitive Pragmatic Approach” No. 18 (2008) 29-52.

KOCHIYAMA, Akiko “A Study on Perceived Strategy Use―Focusing on Students’ Reading and Listening Strategy Use” No. 9 (1998) 67-81.

KOCHIYAMA, Akiko “A Study on English Language Lessons Using Global Issues as Teaching Content” No. 9 (1998) 83-96.

KOCHIYAMA, Akiko “Situational Activities for Learners’ Motivation” English and American Linguistics and Literature (2000) 251-281.

L

LU, Fong Qi “Comparison of Negation between English and Chinese” No. 9 (1998) 121-134.

M

MASUTOMI, Kazuhiro “On the Grammaticality of English Existential Sentences and Definiteness Restriction: A Reconsideration from the Perspective of Syntactic Structures of Definite Noun Phrases” Vantage Points of English Linguistics, Literature and Education (2015) 290-301.

MATSUKURA, Nobuyuki “-Ed Adjectives in Prepositive Uses” No. 2 (1991) 43-54.

MATSUKURA, Nobuyuki “The Structure of Passive Infinitives” No. 3 (1992) 77-88.

MATSUKURA, Nobuyuki “On the Function and Co-occurrence Restriction of Evaluative Adverbs” No. 6 (1995) 91-101.

MATSUKURA, Nobuyuki “On Style Disjuncts” No. 7 (1996) 99-109.

MATSUKURA, Nobuyuki “On the Meaning and Function of Negatives” No. 12 (2002) 61-73.

MATSUKURA, Nobuyuki “Participial Adjectives Expressing Emotions in English Japanese Dictionaries” No. 17 (2007) 17-26.

MATSUKURA, Nobuyuki “The Passive Use of Verbs Meaning Announcement & Examination in Newspaper Headlines from the Point of View of Information Structure” No. 19 (2009) 43-54.

MATSUKURA, Nobuyuki “The Grammatical and Semantic Function of SomethingVantage Points of English Linguistics, Literature and Education (2015) 302-311.

MATSUNAGA, Iwao [Special Contribution] “Some Aspects of Translation of Genji Monogatari” No. 22 (2012) 1-17.

MEGA, Kiji “Where in a sentence does thematic progression apply?” No. 19 (2009) 55-72.

MIYAZAKI, Sachiko “What Should Japan’s Foreign Language Education Be Like in the Period of Globalization?” No. 24 (2014) 45-71.

MIYOSHI, Nobuhiro and Takahiro TOZAWA “A Note on the Japanese Focus Particle Bakari” No. 23 (2013) 87-103.

N

NABEI, Lisa and Toshinori YASUDA “Effects of EFL Learners’ Pronunciation Belief and Awareness on Their English Speaking Anxiety: The Case of Low-intermediate Japanese College Students” No. 26 (2016) 17-31.

NAGAI, Miyuki [Research Note] “Verbs Used with the Verb-Particle Expression “Talk One’s Head Off”” No. 23 (2013) 129-139.

NAGATANI, Mario “A Reconsideration on the Novels of Anti-Realism―The Literature of Black Humor―” No. 3 (1992) 31-43.

NAGATANI, Mario “An Essay on Kurt Vonnegut―A Warning to Foolish Human Beings―” No. 4 (1993) 1-13.

NAGATANI, Mario “Aspects of New Writings―The Emancipation from Realism and Many Literary Experiments―” No. 5 (1994) 1-15.

NAGATANI, Mario “The World of Thomas Pynchon” No. 6 (1995) 1-22.

NAGATANI, Mario “An Essay An Essay on Late Postmodernism” No. 7 (1996) 1-21.

NAGATANI, Mario “An Essay on Late Postmodernism” No. 8 (1997) 1-23.

NAGATANI, Mario “A Study on Works of Fiction in the Computer Age―Focus on Gibson’s Neuromancer―” No. 9 (1998) 1-25.

NAGATANI, Mario “American Literature and the Dream” English and American Linguistics and Literature (2000) 142-198.

NAGATANI, Mario “The Death of the Death of the Novel―The Making of a Post-Contemporary American Fiction―” No. 11 (2001) 109-149.

NAGATANI, Mario “The Life of Fiction” No. 12 (2002) 109-138.

NAGATANI, Mario “Donald Barthelme’s Bringing Chaos to Order” No. 13 (2003) 53-74.

NAGATANI, Mario “Steinbeck on Man and Nature: A Philosophical Reflection” No. 14 (2004) 47-57.

NAGATANI, Mario “Literature as Virtual Reality” No. 17 (2007) 151-167.

NAGATANI, Mario “The Poe’s Last Year―His final days as mysterious as much of his writing―” No. 19 (2009) 73-81.

NAGATANI, Mario “Contemporary Fiction: Postmodern Gothic” The Future of English Studies (2010) 249-258.

NAITO, Mao “Writing Fearlessly: Theoretical Discourses around Paula Vogel and her Plays” No. 21 (2011) 27-42.

NAITO, Mao “Longing for Oneness/Wholeness in Ukiyo: The Floating World in The Long Christmas Ride HomeVantage Points of English Linguistics, Literature and Education (2015) 52-62.

NAKAMURA, Hitomi “Sam Hanna Bell and December Bride: A View on Ulster” Vantage Points of English Linguistics, Literature and Education (2015) 63-74.

NAKAYAMA, Takao “An Essay on Fitzgerald’s “Winter Dreams”―‘dream’ and ‘illusion’―” No. 2 (1991) 29-41.

NAKAYAMA, Takao “An Essay on Franny and Zooey―What is Zen Buddhism for Salinger?―” No. 8 (1997) 45-59.

NAKAYAMA, Takao “An Essay on “A Perfect Day for Bananafish”―What does the death of Seymour mean?” No. 9 (1998) 27-38.

NIIBORI, Tsukasa “Encounter with Beauty―On Xuzhimo’s Concept of Mansfield―” No. 8 (1997) 61-77.

NIIBORI, Tsukasa ““Song” by C. Rossetti―On Xuzhimo’s Translation―” No. 9 (1998) 39-54.

NIIBORI, Tsukasa “Mu Dan’s Sonnet―On “The Presence of Wisdom”” No. 12 (2002) 75-92.

NOMURA, Tadao “[Review Article] Kinsuke Hasegawa, Seeseebunpoo no Hoohoo
―Eeegotoogoron no Shikumi
[Approaches to Generative Grammar: The Fundamentals of English Syntax], Kenkyusha, Tokyo, December 2003, xiii+301pp.” No. 15 (2005) 15-42.

NOMURA, Tadao “On the Interpretation of “government of the people”” The Future of English Studies (2010) 199-214.

NOMURA, Tadao “A Reconsideration of the Monosemy View of Modal Auxiliary―Root Use and Epistemic Use” No. 22 (2012) 35-51.

NOMURA, Tadao “The World of Japanese English Linguistics: The Reality, the Problems, and the Future” No. 23 (2013) 55-85.

NOMURA, Tadao “Are There Really Two Types of tos?: Raising to and Control toVantage Points of English Linguistics, Literature and Education (2015) 251-264.

O

OHKI, Tom “Number Symbolism in Samuel Daniel’s Delia” No. 24 (2014) 73-97.

OHKI, Tom “The Numerological Structure of Shakespeare’s SonnetsVantage Points of English Linguistics, Literature and Education (2015) 2-13.

OKUI, Yutaka “An Essay on “The Ant and the Grasshopper” by W. S. Maugham: The Significance of the Intensive Reading in English Literary Studies” Vantage Points of English Linguistics, Literature and Education (2015) 14-27.

OZEKI, Mami “Contradictory Input and Null Subject in a Child L2 Grammar of English” No. 6 (1995) 129-139.

OZEKI, Mami “A Kind of Paper or Kind of A Paper?” No. 7 (1996) 75-99.

OZEKI, Mami “Remarks on English Signs in Tokyo” No. 8 (1997) 119-150.

OZEKI, Mami “Acquisition of Argument Structures by L1/L2 Learners of English” No. 9 (1998) 135-158.

OZEKI, Mami “Language and Gender” English and American Linguistics and Literature (2000) 27-63.

P

Q

R

RIKU, Hoki (LU, Fong Qi) “Comparison between Adverbials in Chinese and English” No. 6 (1995) 103-116.

S

SAIZEN, Akira “On English Infinitival Operator Clauses” No. 24 (2014) 1-28.

SATO, Masami “To the Lighthouse: A Deliberate Complexity of Symbolism” No. 15 (2005) 117-132.

SATO, Ryosuke “Derived Nominals and their Argument” Vantage Points of English Linguistics, Literature and Education (2015) 217-228.

SHIBUSAWA, Yusuke “Interpretation Process of Conversation and Relevance Theory” No. 22 (2012) 53-66.

SHIBUSAWA, Yusuke “Prescriptive Linguistic View and Its Grammar” Vantage Points of English Linguistics, Literature and Education (2015) 229-239.

SHIBUYA, Kazuro “Teaching Metaphor with Visuals―A Lesson Plan for Teaching Metaphor to ESL Learners by Using Pictures―” No. 11 (2001) 59-78.

SHIBUYA, Kazuro “Investigation of “transfer strategy” and constraints on transfer in the case of Japanese of English as a foreign language” No. 13 (2003) 31-51.

SHIBUYA, Kazuro “Motivational Change of Japanese Learners of English: Study of Students at Tottori University of Environmental Studies” No. 15 (2005) 43-78.

SHIBUYA, Kazuro “New Approaches to L2 Learning Motivation Research” No. 16 (2006) 109-126.

SHIBUYA, Kazuro “Orientations of Motivated and Less Motivated EFL Learners: A Study of Japanese University Students” No. 17 (2007) 81-100.

SHIBUYA, Kazuro “Changes of Motivational Intensity in Learning a Foreign Language―A Study of University Students in Japan” No. 18 (2008) 1-16.

SHIBUYA, Kazuro “Motivational Influences Affecting the Development of L2 Motivation of Japanese Learners of English” The Future of English Studies (2010) 20-34.

SHIBUYA, Kazuro “The Developmental Processes and Patterns of Japanese Students’ Motivation for Learning English” Vantage Points of English Linguistics, Literature and Education (2015) 133-143.

SHIMBORI, Takashi “On Pearl in The Scarlet Letter” No. 6 (1995) 23-40.

SHIMBORI, Takashi “A Tragedy of the Haunted: A Reading of “The Birthmark” by Nathaniel Hawthorne” No. 8 (1997) 25-44.

SHIMBORI, Takashi “A Reading of Winesburg, Ohio: On “Godliness” (A Tale in Four Parts)” No. 14 (2004) 35-45.

SHIMBORI, Takashi “A Report of a Case Research: On the Appropriateness of the Japanese-English Translation Practice in Dialogue Style as Lesson Contents and the Learners’ Attitude toward It” No. 15 (2005) 103-116.

SHIMBORI, Takashi “A Reading of Winesburg, Ohio. (2) On “Hands” and “Paper Pills”” No. 17 (2007) 111-126. 

SOMEYA, Masahiro “The Possibility of ‘Creative Life’ in Women in Love” No. 22 (2012) 19-33.

SOMEYA, Masahiro “D. H. Lawrence’s Social Idea and “Otherness”” No. 24 (2014) 99-113.

SOMEYA, Masahiro “Daughters of the Vicar and Deconstruction” Vantage Points of English Linguistics, Literature and Education (2015) 28-39.

SUGIYAMA, Sachiko “The Pros and Cons of Grammar Translation Method: Is It Really Harmful?” No. 23 (2013) 105-128.

SUZUKI, Shigeyuki “A Study of Listening Comprehension Problems: Minimal pair (English)―Allophone (Japanese)” No. 3 (1992) 89-100.

SUZUKI, Shigeyuki “Communicative Competence in Identifying Subjects in Japanese Sentences” No. 3 (1992) 101-116.

SUZUKI, Shigeyuki “A Study of English Used in Frequent Flyer Programs” No. 4 (1993) 33-46.

SUZUKI, Shigeyuki “A Stylistic Analysis of the Front Page of the English Language Newspapers Published in the U. S. and Japan” No. 6 (1995) 117-128.

SUZUKI, Shigeyuki “A Study of Sexist/Non-Sexist Language” No. 8 (1997) 151-161.

SUZUKI, Shigeyuki “Forest Gump as a Literary Work” No. 11 (2001) 1-13.

SUZUKI, Shigeyuki “How America Reported 9.11” No. 12 (2002) 17-30.

SUZUKI, Shigeyuki “On Rhetorical Expressions in Newspaper Headlines” No. 18 (2008) 17-28.

SUZUKI, Masamitsu “On Misusage” No. 21 (2011) 1-14.

T

TAKAHASHI, Tomio “A Thought on “Waste Land”” No. 3 (1992) 45-64.

TAKAHASHI, Tomio “About a Poem of Thomas Hardy” No. 3 (1992) 65-76.

TAKAHASHI, Tomio “Thomas Hardy’s World of Poetry” No. 4 (1993) 15-31.

TAKAHASHI, Tomio “Translated poems of R. S. Thomas” No. 5 (1994) 17-48.

TAKAHASHI, Tomio “About T. Hardy’s poem ‘Channel Firing’” No. 6 (1995) 41-64.

TAKETOMI, Ria “Exploring the Meaning of Kazuo Ishiguro’s When We Were Orphans: Considering the Usage of Metaphors and Reticence of Christopher Banks” No. 23 (2013) 29-53.

TAKETOMI, Ria “A Study on “Misunderstanding” and “Amputation” in Kazuo Ishiguro’s The UnconsoledVantage Points of English Linguistics, Literature and Education (2015) 40-51.

TANIZAWA, Yasushi [Research Notes] “Interlanguage Errors both from a Primary Language and Developmental Substitutions” No. 15 (2005) 133-140.

TANIZAWA, Yasushi “The Topic and the Agency in the Passive Voice” No. 16 (2006) 71-92.

TANIZAWA, Yasushi [Research Notes] “Causality of Conversation of the Voice in Translation” No. 16 (2006) 147-156.

TANIZAWA, Yasushi “The effect of the political idea “social contract” to the Japanese Constitution—in terms of politics and linguistics” No. 17 (2007) 27-46.

TANIZAWA, Yasushi “Modal auxiliary “will” as the usage of “inevitability” in the Japanese Constitution Article 9” No. 18 (2008) 95-114.

TANIZAWA, Yasushi “How Ashida-draft-amendment Influenced the Article 9 Clause 1 of the Japanese Constitution―Research in Terms of the Usage” No. 19 (2009) 19-42.

TOKIMATSU, Kenji “N. Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter and American Culture” No. 21 (2011) 15-26.

TONOIKE, Shigeo [Special Contribution] “Non-Movement Analysis of Operator Variable Constructions and Its Consequences” No. 23 (2013) 1-27.

U

V

W

X

Y

YADA, Sadayuki【Research Note】“Globalization and Reform of Education in Japan” Vantage Points of English Linguistics, Literature and Education (2015) 157-168.

YAMADA, Nanae “Consideration of Providing a Good Approach to Backshift in Embedded Clauses” Vantage Points of English Linguistics, Literature and Education (2015) 169-179.

YAMAGUCHI, Hideo “Walt Whitman’s “On the Beach, at Night”―The Analogy of the Poet Himself as a Father and His Affection to His Brothers―” No. 2 (1991) 1-27.

YAMAGUCHI, Hideo “The Study of Walt Whitman―Walt Whitman’s ‘Adhesiveness’ or the Unity of Two Lovers in His ‘Calamus’ Poems” No. 3 (1992) 1-13.

YASUDA, Toshinori “To Raise Self-Esteem in Japanese Learners of English: Preliminary Design of a New Rating Scale” Vantage Points of English Linguistics, Literature and Education (2015) 144-156.

YOKOI, Kazuyuki “English Teaching in Early Childhood, with Regard to Early Education and Kindergarten-Elementary School Collaboration” Vantage Points of English Linguistics, Literature and Education (2015) 180-190.

YOSHIDA, Akiko “A Morphological and Lexical Analysis on Malapropisms” No. 24 (2014) 29-43.

YOSHIDA, Hiroyo “A Study of Joyce’s Ulysses in terms of Aristotle’s Poetics” No. 6 (1995) 81-90.

YOSHIDA, Hiroyo “A Study of A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man―As a Prologue to Ulysses” No. 7 (1996) 23-35.

YOSHIDA, Hiroyo “A Study of The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie in which Spark made the characters peculiar” No. 8 (1997) 77-87.

YOSHIDA, Hiroyo “On what compels Joyce to limit his expression―Why could Bloom connive at his wife’s unfaithfulness?―” No. 8 (1997) 89-101.

YOSHIDA, Hiroyo “A Brief History of the English Novel” English and American Linguistics and Literature (2000) 229-251.

YOSHIDA, Hiroyo “Humanistic Approach in Teaching English―the Use of E-mail” No. 11 (2001) 93-107.

Z

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